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Mikael Klintman

Mikael Klintman


Mikael Klintman

Attityder och delaktighet vid etablering av vindkraft till havs


  • Åsa Waldo
  • Mikael Klintman

Summary, in English

The political objectives on national and international levels towards a larger

proportion of renewable energy require considerable planning activities on

a local level. These activities inevitably must relate to the local community

and its various groups; their culture, economy, social activities as well as their

views on environmental problems and nature values. This applies to all energy

plants. Wind power has previously been regarded as small-scale in character,

as it has often been built as small groups of windmills. In recent years, wind

power projects on a larger scale have been developed and established, making

wind power more significant for the local community and its inhabitants. The

present report is based on a study of views expressed by locals as regards a

special kind of wind-power plant, namely large-scale, offshore wind power.

The report aims at examining the coordination between different stakeholders;

decision-makers, communities and entrepreneurs concerning two

wind power projects: Lillgrund in The Sound (Öresund), and Utgrunden II in

the Kalmar Strait (Kalmarsund). The report is intended to provide an understanding

of attitudes and perceptions of risks and possibilities of various local

stakeholders in these two cases. Conceptual tools are borrowed from our own

studies as well as other researchers’ previous studies of attitudes, values, and

forms of public participation. Since the study objective has been to seek the

stakeholders’ own formulations of problems and opportunities concerning the

projects, we have used a qualitative research design. Three types of techniques

have been used to gather information: document analysis, field observations

and in-depth interviews. Important to note is that the report is not based on

statistical data of public attitudes.

Positive as well as negative attitudes towards the two wind power projects

have been analyzed in both regions. The positive attitude is mainly based on

ethical values (wind is seen as an environmentally sound energy source that

we should invest in), and for some also on material values (projects can create

jobs and economic growth in the local community). The negative attitude is

partly based on aesthetic values (scenery and local nature values are thought

to be threatened) and a combination of substantive and ethical values (wind

power is seen as unprofitable and inefficient). The analysis shows that there is

need for increased knowledge, both through the provision of facts about economic

and technical conditions of wind power and, as a reversed mediation

of knowledge, by better understanding of local stakeholders’ conceptions of

wind power projects.

Criticism of wind power is largely based on a view that it could not be an

effective way to produce energy, and that it could not possibly bear its own

costs. Thus, wind power entrepreneurs should clearly show environmental

benefits, profitability and efficiency in a specific project draft. Moreover, negative

emotions towards wind power projects are closely associated with aesthetic

values. We were able to note that the scale of the projects had given rise

to greater hesitation and more concern about visual intrusion. It is therefore

essential to take human experience seriously, for example by maintaining a

dialogue around each specific project from an aesthetic point of view in order

to establish what local values and experiences are thought to be threatened,

and how the project might be altered.


  • Sociology

Publishing year




Document type



Swedish Environmental Protection Agency


  • Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)



Report number



  • ISBN: 978-91-620-6351-1