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Photo of Shai Mulinari. Private photo.

Shai Mulinari

Associate Professor | Senior Lecturer

Photo of Shai Mulinari. Private photo.

Accessibility and quality of drug company disclosures of payments to healthcare professionals and organisations in 37 countries: A European policy review


  • Piotr Ozieranski
  • Luc Martinon
  • Pierre-Alain Jachiet
  • Shai Mulinari

Summary, in English

Objectives: To examine the accessibility and quality of drug company payment data in Europe.

Design: Comparative policy review of payment data in countries with different regulatory approaches to disclosure.

Setting; 37 European countries.

Participants: European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, its trade group and their drug company members;, an independent database integrating payments disclosed by companies and trade groups; regulatory bodies overseeing payment disclosure.

Main outcome measures: Regulatory approaches to disclosure (self-regulation, public regulation, combination of the two); data accessibility (format, structure, searchability, customisable summary statistics, downloadability) and quality (spectrum of disclosed characteristics, payment aggregation, inclusion of taxes, recipient or donor identifiers).

Results: Of 30 countries with self-regulation, five had centralised databases, with Disclosure UK displaying the highest accessibility and quality. In 23 of the remaining countries with self-regulation and available data, disclosures were published in the portable document format (PDF) on individual company websites, preventing the public from understanding payment patterns. had greater accessibility than any industry-run database, but the match between the value of payments integrated in and summarised separately by industry in seven countries ranged between 56% and 100% depending on country. shared quality shortcomings with the underlying industry data, including ambiguities in identifying payments and their recipients. Public regulation was found in 15 countries, used either alone (3), in combination (4) or in parallel with (8) self-regulation. Of these countries, 13 established centralised databases with widely ranging accessibility and quality, and sharing some shortcomings with the industry-run databases. The French database, Transparence Santé, had the highest accessibility and quality, exceeding that of Disclosure UK.

Conclusions: The accessibility and quality of payment data disclosed in European countries are typically low, hindering investigation of financial conflicts of interest. Some improvements are straightforward but reaching the standards characterising the widely researched US Open Payments database requires major regulatory change.


  • Sociology

Publishing year





BMJ Open



Document type

Journal article


BMJ Publishing Group


  • Sociology
  • Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy




  • Following the money: cross-national study of pharmaceutical industry payments to medical associations and patient organisations


  • ISSN: 2044-6055