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Photo of Britt-Marie Johansson

Britt-Marie Johansson

Associate Professor | Senior Lecturer

Photo of Britt-Marie Johansson

Identification of Warning Signs During Selection of Surgical Trainees


  • Kristine Hagelsteen
  • Britt Marie Johansson
  • Anders Bergenfelz
  • Chris Mathieu

Summary, in English

Objective: The aim was to document empirical observations about antecedents to and practices of unsuitable behaviours amongst surgical trainees and develop an interview guide that could be used for the selection process. Design: A mixed methods design was adopted combining a survey distributed to senior surgeons and heads of departments, followed by semi-structured interviews with experienced surgeons. Setting: All surgical departments and hospitals in The South Swedish Health Care Region. Participants: The survey was completed by 54 of 83 eligible surgeons above 50 years of age, and 4 of 7 heads of surgical departments. Semi-structured interviews with 13 surgeons representing local, regional, and university hospitals from the same cohort. Results: Forty-six (85%) surgeons and four of seven heads of departments responded that they had come across surgical trainees deemed unsuitable to train and work as a surgeon. All heads of department and 31 of 54 of the surgeons believed tendencies towards unsuitability are evident early during training. From the survey, 107 statements described reasons for finding a trainee unsuitable. Qualitative analysis of the interviews and free-text answers of the survey led to identification of 11 problem domains with associated “warning signs”. An interview guide to help detect unsuitability tendencies in candidates during selection procedures was constructed. Conclusions: Experienced surgeons have quite consistent views on what makes a person unsuitable as a surgeon. Their views have been systematized into 11 problem domains, and a set of ‘warning signs’ for unsuitable behaviours and traits has been developed. Early detection of these signs and traits is important for the individual, the work environment, and patient safety. A recommendation for a minimum framework for selection including the constructed interview guide is presented.


  • Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery
  • Department of Sociology
  • Sociology

Publishing year







Journal of Surgical Education





Document type

Journal article




  • Surgery
  • Educational Sciences


  • Competencies: Interpersonal and communication skills
  • human factors
  • patient safety
  • Professionalism
  • residency
  • selection
  • selection interview
  • Surgical education
  • Systems-based practice




  • Selection of doctors for higher surgical training; recruitment, instruments for testing, assessment, and training in a simulated environment

Research group

  • Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery


  • ISSN: 1931-7204